headerdrawing1.jpg (96365 bytes)

Sulphuric Acid on the WebTM Technical Manual DKL Engineering, Inc.

Knowledge for the Sulphuric Acid Industry Line.jpg (1139 bytes)

Sulphuric Acid on the Web

Equipment Suppliers

Industry News
Acid Traders

Used Plants
Intellectual Propoerty
Acid Plant Database
Market Information

Technical Manual


Plant Safety
Metallurgial Processes
Sulphur Burning
Acid Regeneration
Lead Chamber
Gas Cleaning
Strong Acid
Acid Storage

Sulphur Systems
Liquid SO2
Boiler Feed Water
Steam Systems

Cooling Water
Effluent Treatment
Analytical Procedures
Materials of Construction
Vendor Data

DKL Engineering, Inc.

Handbook of Sulphuric Acid Manufacturing
Order Form

Sulphuric Acid Decolourization
Order Form
Table of Contents

Process Engineering Data Sheets - PEDS
Order Form
Table of Contents


Bibliography of Sulphuric Acid Technology
Order Form


Sulphuric Acid Plant Specifications

Google Search new2.gif (111 bytes)



Materials of Construction - FRP
August 19, 2010

Corrosion Layer
Structural Layer

        Chopped Strand Mat
        Woven Roving
        Continuous Roving
Fire Retardant
Ultra-Violet (UV) Inhibitor

Codes and Standards
Associated Links

Nexus® Veil


FRP Inspection


duct2.GIF (46982 bytes)
FRP ducting being fabricated by Southwest Fiberglass

Fibreglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) is used predominantly in the gas cleaning section of a metallurgical or acid regeneration plant for equipment, ducting, piping, dampers, pumps, etc.  FRP can only be used downstrream of the Quench Tower after which the gas has been adiabatically cooled, typically to less than 70°C.

Corrosion Layer

Fabrication of an FRP piece of equipment generally begins with the interior.  The interior surface will be in contact with the process and must be able to withstand the service conditions.  This layer is generally referred to as the corrosion liner.  A surfacing veil saturated with catalyzed resin forms the base for successive layers.  The corrosion layer generally consists of the surfacing veil and two layers of chopped strand mat.  As with metallic construction, the corrosion layer is not included in the total thickness when determining the wall thickness for mechanical strength.

The chemical resistance of a fibreglass composite is provided by the resin.  The surfacing veil is used to control the thickness of the resin-rich layer and gives strength to the corrosion layer.  The veil must also be resistant to the process conditions as it can be easily attacked since it is very close to the surface.  Where fluorides are present, a glass veil cannot be used since they will be readily attacked.  In this case, a veil made from polyester is used.

The corrosion layer will typically be 10 to 20 mils (0.254 to 0.508 mm) thick and contain about 90% resin to 10% veil material.

Monofilament glass or polyester fibres are commonly used as surfacing veil materials.  The most common are “C” Glass or Dacron 106 homopolymer (polyester).  “A” Glass and other polyester materials are less common but are gaining acceptance in the industry.

Typical veil materials are:

Trade Name Type   Manufacturer
Nexus® Polyester PFG
ABFAB® Polyester ABCO Industries, Inc.
Avelle 1213AP Polyester Sterling Paper Corp.
Reemay 2410 Polyester Sterling Paper Corp.
Regina® F2/20  “C” Glass Regina Fiberglass Ltd.
Surmat® 100-SF “A” Glass Nico-Fibers, Inc.
Superior Glass type SSM “A” Glass Superior Glass Fibers
Fruedenberg T-1777   “C” Glass Freudenberg

Structural Layer

MAT.jpg (17496 bytes)Chopped Strand Mat

Chopped strand mat is a felted matrix of chopped strand “E” or “ECR” glass fibres.   Fibres are 0.5” to 2.0” long and loosely held together by a styrene soluble resin binder.

Copped strand mat is typically used with the surfacing veil to form the corrosion layer.  They are also use alone or in combination with woven roving in alternate layers to form the structural layer of the vessel.  Chopped strand mats will form a laminate of about 30% glass and 70% resin.  This combination helps to produce a laminate with good strength and excellent chemical resistance.

Typical chopped strand mats are:

Trade Name Type Manufacturer
M113 “E” Glass CertainTeed Corporation
OCF® 723  “E” Glass Owens-Corning Fiberglass
OCF® M723 “ECR” Glass Owens-Corning Fiberglass
MPM 2000 “E” Glass PPG Industries

WOVEN.jpg (16044 bytes)Woven Roving

Woven roving is a course, heavy fabric made of long, continuous strands of glass fibres.  They are typically used in alternate layers with chopped strand mat to form the structural layer of a vessel.  The resulting laminate will be about 40-50% glass.



Typical woven rovings are:

Trade Name Manufacturer
324 CertainTeed Corporation
HYBON® Woven Roving HTX PPG Industries


Baymills Inc

controving.GIF (17252 bytes)Continuous Roving

Continuous roving comes in various densities and sizes for application in filament winding.  Gun roving is used as a substitute for chopped strand mat in the corrosion and structural layers.   The resulting laminate are generally about 30-40% glass.



Typical continuous rovings are:

Trade Name

Straight Shot RO99®/660 & 67B CertainTeed Corporation
HYBON® 2001 PPG Industries
Type 30 P366C X6 Owens-Corning Fiberglass


For typical acid plant service the following resins are suitable:

  DERAKANE 510A-40 Corve 8400
Type Brominated Bis A Epoxy Vinyl Ester Resin. It offers the highest degree of fire resistance available in a vinyl ester resin without additives.  It has a high degree of resistance to mechanical and chemical damage.  Non-promoted, fire retardant, vinyl ester resin.
Manufacturer Dow Interplastic Corporation
Resin/Styrene Ratio 60/40 -
Viscosity (cP) 350 @25°C 400-600 @25°C
Specific Gravity 1.22 1.18-1.22
Flame Spread 30 < 25 (Class1)
10 (with 2% Sb2O3) -
% Elongation 4-5 4.8% (Casting)


  DERAKANE 510C-300/350 Corve 8440
Type Derakane 510C is a brominated epoxy vinyl ester resin designed to have competitive economics while retaining the excellent chemical resistance and toughness typical of Derakane resins.   Optimum ignition resistance is achieved when antimony compounds are added to the resin. Non-promoted, fire retardant, vinyl ester resin.
Manufacturer Dow Interplastic Corporation
Resin/Styrene Ratio - -
Viscosity (cP) 350 @25°C 450-550 @25°C
Specific Gravity 1.14 1.14-1.17
Flame Spread - 50
- 15 (with 1.5% Sb2O3)
% Elongation - 4.0% (Casting)


Safety factors for the design of fibreglass reinforced plastic items shall be based on the following:

Tensile or Flexural Stress - 10:1

Elasticity Instability (External Pressure, etc.) - 5:1

The ultimate tensile strength, flexural strength and flexural modulus of elasticity (tangent) requirements shall meet or exceed the values as listed in RTP-1.   Physical properties for the material should be taken at the design temperature of the process.  The corrosion barrier, internal anti-wicking barrier and exterior protective systems should not be considered as structural elements in the calaculation of the required thickness.

The design calculations should consider all loadings and forces on the equipment, piping or ducting.  These should include: internal and externl pressure/vacuum; weight of the equipment; weight of the contents; wind, snow, ice, earth quake; live and dead loads; insulation, pumps, agitators; support rings, etc.

Fire Retardantfrp1.GIF (76071 bytes)

To achieve a Class 1 flame spread rating, antomony trioxide or Nyacal APE 1545 antimony oxide shall be added up to a maximum of 5% wt to all resin in the structural layer to improve fire resistance and reduce the flame spread rating to a maximm of 15 when tested in accordance with ASTM E-84 "Standard Method of Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials".

Ultra-Violet (UV) Inhibitor

When a piece of FRP equipment is located outdoors, UV inhibitors must be added to the exterior surface coat to prevent damage to the resin by UV light.   Typical UV inhibitors are:

Approximately 0.1 to 0.3% UV inhibitor is added to the surface coat.

Codes and Standards

The design, material supply, fabrication, quality and inspection shall be in compliance with the latest editions of:

ASME RTP-1, "Reinforced Thermoset Plastic Corrosion Resistant Equipment"

ASTM D-1250, "Specification for Woven Roving Glass Fabrics for Polyester Glass Laminates, Type 3"

ASTM D-2563, "Recommended Practice for Classifying Visual Defects in Glass-Reinforced Plastic Laminate Parts'

ASTM D-2996, "Standard Specification for Filament-Wound Reinforced Thermosetting Plastic Pipe"

ASTM D-3299, "Standard Specification for Filament-Wound-Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermoset Resin Chemical-Resistant Tanks"

ASTM D-3567, "Determining Dimensions of Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Pipe and Fittings"

ASTM D-4097, "Standard Specification for Contact-Molded Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermoset Resin Chemical-Resistant Tanks"

ASTM C-582, "Standard Specification for Contact-Molded Reinforced Thermosetting Plastic (RTP) laminates for Corrosion-Resistant Equipment"

ASTM C-3982, "Contact Molded Fiberglass (Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting Resin) Ducts and Hoods"